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At present, the server's highly competitive market, foreign IBM, HP (Hewlett-Packard), DELL (Dell), SUN and other well-known manufacturers, there are Lenovo, a wave of first-line manufacturers such as dawn provide different levels of server products to meet different user needs.

1. According to the application level is divided into entry-level servers, work group-level servers, departmental servers and enterprise-class server categories.

Entry-level servers
Entry-level servers often use only one CPU, and in accordance with the corresponding need to configure the memory (eg 256MB) and large-capacity IDE hard drive and, if necessary, will use IDE RAID (a disk array technology, the main purpose is to ensure the reliability of data and recoverability) for data protection. Entry-level servers are mainly based on Windows NT, NetWare network operating system such as users, small and medium-sized to meet the office-based users of file sharing, print services, data processing, Internet access and simple database applications can also be completed in a small area, such as E-mail, Proxy, DNS and other services.

IBMxSeries200 entry-level servers

For a small office needs, the server's main role is to complete the file and print services, file and print server services are one of the most basic applications, hardware requirements low, generally use the single or double stars CPU's to entry-level servers. In order to provide adequate printer to print a larger buffer memory, in order to cope with frequent and large amount of documentation required to access the hard disk subsystem fast, and good management can improve performance efficiency in the use of the server.


Working Group-level servers
Working Group on the general support level servers 1-2 P
processor or single P4 (Pentium 4) processor, can support large volumes of ECC (a memory technology used in server memory) memory, full-featured. Strong manageability, and easier to maintain, with a small range of essential server features such as the use of SCSI (a bus interface technology) bus I / O (input / output) systems, SMP Symmetric Multi-Processor structure, optional RAID, hot-swappable drives, hot-swappable power supply and so on, with high availability features. Applied to provide SMEs with Web, Mail and other services, but also can be used for schools, the education sector the number of campus networks, the construction of multi-media classrooms.

Such as Lenovo for the Working Group as well as other small-scale application environments Wanquan launched T200, use a piece of Intel? Xeon 2.4GHz processor, 256MB of memory as standard equipment, is equipped with four 120G 7200 to SATA (Serial ATA interface, a new hard drive interface) hard drive, 4 Plug SATA RAID card. RAID can provide a variety of ways.

Lenovo T200 Wanquan Server Working Group

Under normal circumstances, if the application is not complicated, for example, there is no need to manage large-scale database, then the use of the Working Group to meet the requirements on the server level. At present, the quality of domestic server brands with the same amount of money abroad, especially in the low-end products, domestic brands have a greater advantage of cost-effective, small and medium enterprises can be considered to choose the products of some domestic brands. In addition, HP and other major manufacturers even offered customized specifically for small and medium-sized servers. However, if the operations of individual enterprises more complex, more data traffic, but funds permitting, we can also consider their choice of sector-level and enterprise-class server to server as part of its mission-critical. At present, HP, DELL, IBM, are the wave of the brand than good.

Department-level servers
Department-level server can support is usually 2-4 P
Xeon (Xeon) processors, with high reliability, availability, scalability and manageability. First of all, the integration of a large number of monitoring and management of the circuit, with a comprehensive server management capabilities, can be monitored such as temperature, voltage, fans, chassis and other state parameters. In addition, the combination of server management software that allows managers to keep abreast of the work situation of the server. At the same time, the majority of department-level servers with excellent scalability of the system, when the user increases the volume of business quickly able to upgrade online systems, to protect users investment. At present, the sector is the enterprise-class network servers scattered data acquisition unit of the grass-roots level and the highest level of data center connectivity necessary to maintain a smooth link. Suitable for medium-sized enterprises (such as finance, posts and telecommunications, etc.) as a data center, Web site applications.

For example, the Founder of the department-level servers -
MT100, its standard configuration for 256MB of memory (the maximum can be expanded to 8GB of memory), the use of one of the Xeon processor 1.8GHz (can also be based on the user's need to expand to double Xeon2. 2GHz). At the same time, chip-board Ultra 320 hard drive to support and provide four hot-swappable hard disk space.


Founder
MT100 departmental server


Enterprise-class server
Server belong to high-end enterprise-class server, generally can support 4-8 PIII Xeon (Xeon) or P4 Xeon (Xeon) processors, with dual-independent PCI channels and memory expansion board design, with high memory bandwidth, high-capacity heat plug hard drives and hot-swappable power supply, with superior data processing capabilities. These products have a high degree of fault-tolerant capabilities, excellent performance and the expansion of system performance, an extremely long time continuous operation of the system, can in large measure to protect users investment. Can be used as large-scale enterprise-class network of database servers.

At present, the enterprise-class servers that need to be addressed are mainly applicable to large amounts of data, high processing speed and high reliability requirements of large enterprises and key industries (such as finance, securities, transportation, post and telecommunications, communications, etc.) can be used to provide ERP (Enterprise the allocation of resources), e-commerce, OA (office automation) and other services. Such as Dell's PowerEdge 4600 server, standard equipment for the 2.4GHz Intel Xeon processors, 12GB memory maximum support. In addition, the Server Works GC-HE chipset, support for 2-4 road Xeon processors. Integrated RAID controller with 128MB cache, 0,1,5,10 can provide users with four levels of RAID, the largest support 10 hot-swappable 730GB hard drive and disk storage space.


Dell PowerEdge 4600 enterprise-class server

Because it is business-oriented applications, where maintenance and redundancy in its unique performance, such as with 7 PCI-X slots (one of six hot-swappable), and that is, without any tools may be redundant fans, power supplies and PCI-X to carry out the installation and replacement.


2. By the server processor architecture (that is, the server CPU instruction set used) into the server framework is divided into CISC servers, RISC architecture and VLIW architecture server three servers.

CISC architecture server
CISC English called "Complex Instruction Set Computer", that is "complex instruction set computer," since birth from the computer, it has always been the way CISC instruction set. Early desktop software design is based on CISC and has been to the present, therefore, the microprocessor (CPU) manufacturers have been following the development path of CISC, including Intel, AMD, there has now been renamed a number of other manufacturers, such as TI (Texas Instruments), Cyrix, and VIA (VIA) and so on. In CISC microprocessors, the procedure is in accordance with instructions of the order of serial execution, each instruction in the various operations is carried out according to the order of the serial. The merits of the order is to control the implementation of simple, but the utilization of the various parts of the computer is not high, the slow pace of implementation. CISC architecture the main server to IA-32 architecture (Intel Architecture, Intel Architecture) based, and the majority of servers used by middle and low.

If the enterprise applications are based on the NT platform application, then the server is basically on the position in the IA framework (CISC architecture) servers. If the enterprise is based mainly on the Linux operating system, then the choice of server architecture is IA-based servers. If the application must be based on Solaris, then the server can only choose SUN server. If the application on AIX (IBM's Unix operating system), then only select IBM Unix servers (RISC architecture servers).

RISC architecture servers
English RISC called "Reduced Instruction Set Computing", in Chinese the "Reduced Instruction Set", and its relatively simple instruction set, only very limited requirements of the hardware and the implementation of that part of the most commonly used executive orders, most of the complexity of the operation were used mature compiler technology, from simple commands synthesis. At present, in the commonly used high-end server system of the directive CPU, in particular high-end servers using RISC instruction set all the CPU. In the use of high-end RISC server CPU instructions are mainly Compaq (Compaq, the new HP) the company's Alpha, HP's PA-RISC, IBM's Power PC, MIPS's MIPS and SUN's Spare.

VLIW architecture server
VLIW English "Very Long Instruction Word" acronym, Chinese means "Very Long Instruction Set Architecture", VLIW architecture features an advanced EPIC (clear instructions in parallel) design, we have called this framework "IA-64 architecture," . For example, each clock cycle can run IA-64 instruction 20, which can only run 1-3 usually CISC instructions, RISC will be able to run four commands, can be seen VLIW and RISC than CISC and more powerful. The greatest advantage of VLIW is to simplify the structure of the processor, remove the processor within the control of many complex circuits, these circuits are usually superscalar chip (CISC and RISC) to coordinate work in parallel must be used, VLIW's structure is simple, and can to reduce chip manufacturing costs and low prices, energy consumption, and performance than the superscalar chip is much higher. The current command structure based on this main Intel microprocessor of IA-64 and AMD's x86-64 in two.

3. In accordance with the server by end-use is divided into general-purpose servers and two types of dedicated servers.

General-purpose server

General-purpose servers are not as some kind of special services designed to provide various service functions of the server, the server is the most current general-purpose server. These servers because they are not specifically designed for a particular function, it is necessary to take into account in the design of a wide range of application needs, the structure of the server on the relatively more complex and demanding higher performance, of course, the price will be more more expensive.

Dedicated servers

Special type (or "functional") server is designed for a one or a number of features specially designed server. In some respects and different general-purpose servers. Such as CD-ROM image server is mainly used to store CD-ROM image file, the server will need the performance of the corresponding function. CD-ROM server needs to mirror equipped with large capacity, high-speed CD-ROM image hard disk and software. FTP server is mainly used in the Internet (including Intranet and Internet) for file transfer, which requires stability of the server hard disk access speed, I / O (input / output) bandwidth has obvious advantages. E-mail server and the main server configuration is to require high-speed broadband Internet access tools, such as hard disk capacity to be big. These functional performance requirements of servers is relatively low, because it will need to meet certain needs of the functions of the application can be, so relatively simple structure to a single CPU; in stability, scalability and so on do not ask for much, the price is also much cheaper, which is equivalent to about 2 the price of high-performance computers. HP of a Web server HP access server, it uses PIII1.13Gbit / s around the CPU, memory and only standard 128MB/256MB, with a better performance of the computer almost ordinary, but it is in some side with the advantages of PC-irreplaceable.

4. By the server into the chassis structure, the server can be classified as "desktop server", "rack-mounted servers," "rackmount server" and "blade server" categories.

Desktop server

Desktop server, also known as "tower server." Some desktop server computer the size of an ordinary vertical chassis more or less considerable, and some large-capacity chassis, like a large cupboard. As the function of weak low-end servers, the internal structure of the entire server is relatively simple, so little chassis, the structure of the use of desktop chassis. Described here is not usually an ordinary desktop computer, desktop, vertical chassis is also a range of desktop machines, at present this type of server in the server market, a large share of possession.

DELL tower server

Rack-mounted servers
Rack-mount server form factor seems to not like computers, like switches, and 1U (1U = 1.75 inch), 2U, 4U and other specifications. Rack-mounted servers installed in the standard 19-inch rack inside. This structure for the multi-functional server.

DELL rack server

Information services for enterprises (such as ISP / ICP / ISV / IDC), the choice of the server when the server first of all to consider the size, power consumption, heat and other physical parameters, because the information services company dedicated a large room used to deploy and manage a large number of uniform server resources, rooms usually have stringent security measures, good cooling system, multiple backup power supply system, the cost of their room very expensive. How the limited space in the deployment of additional servers is directly related to the cost of the service enterprises, usually in line with the selection of machinery the size of industry-standard 19-inch rack-mounted servers. There are a variety of rack-mounted server specifications, such as 1U (4.45cm high), 2U, 4U, 6U, 8U and so on. 1U rack-mounted servers are usually the most space-saving, but the performance and scalability poor for a number of operational areas of the use of relatively fixed. 4U high performance of the above products, scalability, and general support for more than four high-performance processors and a large number of standard hot-swappable components. Management is also very convenient and vendors who typically provide the appropriate management and monitoring tools, traffic for large mission-critical applications, but larger, space utilization is not high.

Rackmount server

In some high-end enterprise servers in the internal structure of the complex as a result, more equipment, some equipment has many different units or more servers in a rack, this is a rackmount server server.

Lenovo's high-performance rackmount servers

The securities, banking, post and telecommunications and other important businesses, should be used with the complete failure of the system self-healing capacity, redundancy of key components of measures should be used for business-critical servers use can also be used Hot or high availability systems performance computers, the availability of such a system can be a very good guarantee.

Blade servers

Blade server is a HAHD (High Availability High Density, High Availability of high-density), low-cost server platform, is designed for special application of the computer industry and high-density environment, in which each "blade" is actually a system of home plate, similar to a separate server. In this mode, each running its own system motherboard, the service designated by different user groups, there is no correlation between them. However, system software can be used to set the motherboard of a server cluster synthesis. In cluster mode, all the motherboard can be connected together to provide high-speed network environment, you can share resources, for the same user base. The current market blade servers have two types: one designed primarily for the telecommunications industry, interface standards and specifications in line with the size PICMG (PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturer's Group) 1.x or 2.x, the future will also be introduced in line with the PICMG 3. x of the product, using the same standards of the different blades and cabinet manufacturers in theory can be compatible with each other; the other for general purpose computing design, interface standards may be a result of the above standards or manufacturers, but manufacturers sizes are self-focus cost performance, the current products fall into this category the majority. Blade servers for the most IxP cluster computing and Internet services.

IA Server
Normally will use Intel (Intel) processor-based server called the IA (Intel Architecture) server architecture, also known as CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer complex instruction set) architecture servers, as a result of IA server architecture is based on PC architecture, so IA architecture then known as PC servers server. Wanquan series such as Lenovo's servers, HP's Netserver Series server.

As the structure of the server using the open system, the "small, clever, steady," characterized by, with reliable performance, low price, and to achieve standardization of industrial technology and has been a large number of domestic and foreign suppliers of hardware and software support, in large production on the basis of its high cost performance and at the global level, particularly in China has been widely used. Internet and LAN with more complete documentation services, print services, communication services, WEB services, email services, database services, application services and other major applications.

Although the IA started in the framework of the server PC, but after constant development, IA architecture server has gone far beyond the concept of PC, which is different from several areas in the following PC.

CPU processing capacity in

Since the server to their data, hardware provided to the network share, in the running web applications must deal with large amounts of data. Therefore requested to have a strong CPU processing power. The majority of IA server architecture CPU symmetric multi-processing techniques, multiple CPU computing common data, greatly improving the server's computing power to meet the school's teaching, the demand for multimedia applications. And general computer configuration PC is basically a single CPU, so PC in the data-processing capability than the server of course, much worse. If the PC to act as servers, in the day-to-day applications will often crash, stagnation or very slow start and so on.

In the I / O (input-output) performance
In small and medium-sized enterprise or campus network applications, often there are many users access the server at the same time, there are a large number of network transmission of multimedia information, request the server I / O (input / output) performance to be strong. Server using the SCSI cards, RAID cards, high-speed network cards, memory devices, such as repeaters, greatly improving the server I / O capacity. Because the PC is a personal computer, no need to provide additional network services, so rarely used in high-performance PC on the I / O technology, and the server compared to its I / O performance of natural falls far short.

Reliability in a safe
Since the server is the core network equipment, so it must have high reliability and security. The use of a dedicated server ECC memory, RAID technology, hot swap technology, redundant power supply (as in the figure below), redundant fans and other methods to make the server with fault tolerance, security protection.


Server takes a long time to ensure continuous operation. Operator long long period? Different servers have different standards. In general, the Working Group requests the server level in the working hours (8 hours a day, five days a week) there is no fault; of departmental server requirements are 24 hours a day, five days a week there is no fault; and on the requirements of enterprise-class server is the highest calling, 365 days a year to be guaranteed 24 hours a day, there is no failure, in other words, the server can be used at any time. The PC is designed for individual users, so in terms of safety, reliability is much lower than the server PC. If the PC as a server, then the emergence of applications in day-to-day downtime or data loss is inevitable natural phenomenon of the.

In the scalability
With the application of information technology matures, we will inevitably face the expansion of network equipment and upgrading of the problem. Servers have more expansion slots, drives more and larger hard drive support, memory expansion capability, allowing users to expand the network, the server can meet the new demands, the protection of the equipment investment costs. Figure 2 shows the server board, with the number up to as many as eight memory slots, the maximum support for 16GB of memory, so that the expansion of capacity is unparalleled PC.

Server motherboards on the number of memory slots


In the management of sexual
From the software and hardware design, the server with better management capabilities. Most servers on the motherboard integrates a variety of sensors, for detecting a variety of server hardware and at the same time with the corresponding management software, remote monitoring of servers, so that the network administrator of the server system to conduct timely and effective management. Some of the management server software remote detection sensor on the motherboard of the signal recorded on the server for remote monitoring and allocation of resources. And PC applications because of its relatively simple, there is no better hardware management system. For the lack of professional and technical personnel, the selection can be strong management server can be removed from many troubles.